ARTICLE: The novel approach for the analysis of microbial communities in environmental samples is called “metagenomics”, and is defined as the study of all the genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples bypassing the need to isolate and culture individual community members3.
ME: JEEZ, THIS SOUNDS A LITTLE “WHOLE-ISTIC” TO ME. NOTHING ISOLATED OR PARTITIONED OUT-JUST ALL THROWN IN THERE TOGETHER.
ARTICLE: Metagenome is the collective genetic content of the combined genomes of the constituents of an ecological community. The microbiome is defined as the collective genome of the microbial symbionts in a host animal4.
ME: THEREFORE, WE ARE SO MUCH MORE THAN JUST THE GENOME MAKE UP OF OUR TWO PARENTS, BUT RATHER WE MUST INCLUDE AND CONSIDER THE GENOME MAKE UP OF ALL THE BACTERIA IN OUR GUT TOO.
ARTICLE: Estimates suggest that the colon, the largest ecological niche for microbial
communities in the human body, harbors over 1014 microbial cells, i.e. several hundred grams of microbes, most of them belonging to the domain Bacteria.
ME: HOLY COW! NOW DO YOU CARE ABOUT THE STATE OF YOUR COLON AND SMALL INTESTINE?
ARTICLE: However, at a lower taxonomic level (species or strain), there is a considerable variation in the composition of the fecal microbiota among human individuals. Strain diversity between individuals is highly remarkable so that studies have found that a large proportion of the identified strain-level phylotypes are unique to each person5. Each individual harbors his or her own distinctive pattern of bacterial composition.
ME: THEREFORE, I DON’T UNDERSTAND WHY CONVENTIONAL MEDICINE IS MUCH MORE “ONE SIZE FITS ALL,” VS HOLISTIC WHICH IS FINELY TUNED TO THE INDIVIDUAL AND HIGHLY CUSTOMIZED.
ARTICLE: Overall structure of the human gut microbiota in each individual conforms to discrete and distinct patterns defined by interactions within community members7.
ME: EACH OF US HAS OUR OWN UNIQUE MICROBIOME.
ARTICLE: The enterotype concept suggests that enteric microbiota variations across individuals are generally stratified, not continuous?
ME: I’M NOT SURE WHAT THIS MEANS. CAN SOMEONE EXPLAIN?
ARTICLE: This further indicates the existence of a limited number of well-balanced host-microbial symbiotic states.
ME: THIS REMINDS ME OF THE “WHAT’S CONSIDERED ‘NORMAL’ ELIMINATION.” JUST B/C IT’S ‘COMMON’ AND ‘WITHIN NORMAL RANGE,’ DOESN’T MEAN IT’S “BALANCED, SYMBIOTIC, HEALTHFUL OR DESIRABLE.” FOR EXAMPLE, BY 2020 ESTIMATES ARE THAT 50% OF AMERICANS WILL BE OBESE. THIS WILL BE “COMMON AND NORMAL,” BUT WILL IT BE HEALTHY AND DESIRABLE?
ARTICLE: Interestingly, it seems that the reported enterotype partitioning is related to long-term dietary patterns8.
ME: REALLY? NO SHIT.
ARTICLE: Factors such as diet, drug intake or travelling may have an impact on microbial composition over time in a unique host.
ME: SO THEN TELL ME, WHY DO THEY SAY “MAY?”
ARTICLE: At species level, very few microbial members would constitute the so- called ‘core human gut microbiota’10, since only 5% species were always present in all samples from the same individual.
ME: WOW, THIS REALLY DRIVES HOME THE IDEA OF SHEER NUMBER OF SPECIES AND INDIVIDUALITY OF EACH PERSON’S MICROBIOME. (IF ONE DOESN’T SAY “WOW,” ONE DOESN’T UNDERSTAND).
ARTICLE: Also in animal models it seems that transplantation of gut microbiota from obese mice to non-obese, germ-free mice resulted in transfer of metabolic syndrome- associated features from the donor to the recipient12
ME: OBESE PEOPLE HAVE CONSTIPATION! THESE TWO THINGS ALWAYS GO HAND AND HAND!
ARTICLE: One of the major hypotheses underlying the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the presence of abnormal communication between gut microbial communities and the mucosal immune system13. Luminal bacteria appear to provide the stimulus for immune- inflammatory responses leading to mucosal injury. There is also some evidence showing that the microbiota of patients with IBD differs from that of healthy subjects. Differences include low biodiversity of dominant bacteria, high variability over time, and changes both in composition and spatial distribution (high concentrations of mucosa-adherent bacteria). The microbiota of Crohn’s disease patients is characterized by a decrease in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii14 as well as increased numbers of the Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria phyla15. Some other associations of human conditions with particular microbiota characteristics have been described such as irritable bowel syndrome, psoriasis, colorectal carcinoma, childhood-onset asthma and cardiovascular disease, but consistency among studies is still poor.
ME: I HAVE INTERVIEWED PATIENTS WITH THESE SYMPTOMS WHO OVERCAME THEM THROUGH COLONIC THERAPY, DIETARY CHANGES AND REINTRODUCTION OF HEALTHY BACTERIA.
(THIS IS SOMETHING FOR DR. STEPHEN HOLT AND MELISSA SCHELVEN, PH.D)
ARTICLE: Two possible types of restoration. The first involves restoring ancient organisms in healthy hosts that lack them, as prophylaxis against future risk of disease. The second type of restoration could be therapeutic, when the etiological extinctions or imbalances are clearly identified. This scientific boundary will require an understanding of the biology of re-introductions, as well as developing microbial breeding programs16.
ME: BEFORE YOU CAN “RESTORE,” YOU MUST CLEAR THE “SPACE AND THE WASTE OBVIOUSLY.” THIS IS WHAT HOLISTIC MEDICINE IS ABLE TO ADDRESS BETTER THAN WESTERN MEDICINE! CONVENTIONAL WESTERN MEDICINE DOESN’T GET IT! YOU WOULDN’T PUT A BANDAGE ON BEFORE YOU DISINFECTED THE WOUND WOULD YOU? SHORT TERM VS. LONG TERM THINKING.
ARTICLE: Probiotics were defined as “live micro-organisms which, when administered in adequate amounts as part of food, confer a health benefit on the host” as proposed by the Joint FAO/ WHO Expert Consultation in 2001. A Guideline for the use of probiotics and prebiotics in gastroenterology was recently updated by the World Gastroenterology Organisation17.
ME: HOLISTIC FOLLOWERS HAVE BEEN DOING THIS FOR A CENTURY WITH CULTURED VEGGIES AND KEFIR, YOGURT, BOTTLED PRO AND PRE-BIOTICS, ETC. GET ON THE BANDWAGON CONVENTIONAL WESTERN MEDICINE.
ARTICLE: Finally, fecal transplant has emerged as an alternative approach to treat relapsing diarrhea by Clostridium difficile infection. This procedure has shown success in a subset of patients.
ME: DR. ROLAND SHEPARD-I INTERVIEWED HIM IN TAMPA. HE IS USING COLON HYDROTHERAPY FOR THIS AND COLONOSCOPY PREP.
I WANT TO READ THESE:
8. Wu GD, Chen J, Hoffmann C, et al (2011). Linking long-term dietary patterns with gut microbial enterotypes. Science 334(6052):105-8.
13. Guarner F. (2008) What is the role of the enteric commensal flora in IBD?. Inflamm Bowel Dis 24 14(S2), S83-S84.
14. Sokol H, Pigneur B, Watterlot L et al. (2008) Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an anti-inflammatory commensal bacterium identified by gut microbiota analysis of Crohn disease patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105,16731–16736.